NHIS is an abbreviation for Nigeria’s National Health Insurance Scheme. The NHIS is the governmental agency responsible for distributing health insurance in Nigeria. Its stated objectives are to ensure that every Nigerian can access high quality health care, to limit the cost of health care and to ensure that all income groups receive equally good health care services. In July of 2015, the government encouraged all Nigerians to register with the NHIS and receive health care as only 10 million Nigerians out of a population of more than 170 million citizens were enrolled at the time of the announcement.
HMO stands for Health Maintenance Organization. After the NHIS initiated a largely successful HMO reform program in 2014, more and more Nigerians decided to sign up for HMO-based health care plans. Patients with HMO health insurance in Nigeria must pick a Primary Care Physician (PCP) after agreeing to receive HMO-based health care. In HMO-based health care systems, all medical issues are first handled by the PCP before being routed to specialist doctors. Most Nigerians who have HMO-based health care plans like them, though there have been some issues involving lack of communication between patients and physicians.
The NPHCDA (Nigeria National Primary Health Care Development Agency) was founded in 1992 with the stated goal of improving the quality of health insurance in Nigeria, particularly in the area of primary health care. Its main job is to make sure that all Nigerian infants are fully vaccinated against all preventable diseases. Recent investments on the part of the World Bank have improved the infectious disease situation in Nigeria, but more funds may be needed if the NPHCDA is to continue improving its vaccination program.
NIMR stands for the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research. This agency was formally established in 1977, but was retooled in the year 2000 when the government added new laboratories and added on a host of new staff members. NIMR is currently struggling to reduce the occurrence of tuberculosis in Nigeria. In 2014, over 600,000 new cases of TB were reported. Thousands die of TB each year in Nigeria, even though TB is a curable disease.
The USAID (the United States Agency for International Development) works to end poverty around the world and strengthen democratic societies. USAID is active in Nigeria, working with the government to develop health care solutions. In 2015, USAID worked together with Bayer HealthCare to develop an oral contraceptive for Nigeria and a host of other African countries. Between 2010 and 2015, a USAID program for expecting mothers in Bauchi saved an estimated 38,000 lives.
The FMH (Federal Ministry of Health) helps develop and put into action policies designed to improve health care in Nigeria. Major departments include the Family Health department, which addresses issues related to childbirth and infant care and the Public Health department, which oversees the development of new public health policies and programs in Nigeria.